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political impacts of land reclamation in japan

By on Gru 19, 2020 in Realizacje |

To stem the decline in Japan’s agricultural sector, the GOJ continues to provide high levels of domestic support and the government and farm cooperatives still exert a powerful influence over farmers’ production decisions. Kansai’s historical role as Japan’s commercial center provides many advantages for U.S. companies looking to enter the Japanese market. Its major land reclamation projects have so far added about 23 percent to its total land area. BEIJING – China on Friday said it was “dissatisfied and concerned” by Japanese criticisms of its land reclamation projects in the South China Sea as reported in the outline of a forthcoming defense report. Rice remains Japan’s major crop, but falling consumption has led to chronic surpluses. area gets more accessible for human use and for resource extraction One large-scale public investment project in the works is the "Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST)," a project that the prefectural government hopes will play a major role in the economic and social development of Okinawa in coming years. But its dynamism stems from a diversified economy that includes many high-tech industries. In recent years, due in part to the ban on U.S. beef, Japan has slipped to the number three export market after Canada and Mexico. In addition, a stringent system of regulation for agrochemical residues including strict inspection of imported foods and a time-consuming approval process for biotechnology products also hinder trade in agricultural products. Steps in Land Reclamation. There are several impacts that land reclamation has had on coastal ecosystems: 1. Investments by some of the region’s largest companies in areas such as LCD/plasma flat-panel displays, photovoltaic cells, and lithium battery production helped account for this total. The reclamation of land from surrounding waters is used in Singapore to expand the city-state's area of usable and natural land. Kansai is an economic giant, with traditional industries of digital consumer electronics, electronic components, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and textiles led by cutting edge new tech sectors such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, industrial ceramics, robotics and photovoltaic power technology. Such factors are often beyond the control of individual farmers and for this reason appropriate policy decisions and corrective measures become the responsibility of respective governments. Kansai’s regional rail network includes an extensive metro and bullet train service that connects Osaka, Kobe, and Kyoto to major cities in Japan. The outline of the defense white paper, reported this week, described China’s actions in the Spratly Islands, known as Nansha in Chinese, as “high-handed.”. Authors: Marloes van Ginkel | Theo N. Olsthoorn. In 2008, despite the worsening economic conditions, a record 6 million people visited the island. Once a project is approved, as part of the land management and reclamation plan, soil (sometimes including muskeg or peat) is removed and stored for use when the site is reclaimed. The impacts of land reclamation activities are … Kobe, Japan Land reclamation What is Reclamation of land What is Reclamation of land What is Reclamation of land what is reclamation of land what is reclamation of land Land reclamation also known as land fill (not to be confused with landfill) is the process of creating new land Japan’s self-sufficiency rate in food production is likely to further decrease since Japan’s farm population is rapidly aging, with more than 70 percent of farmers over 60 years of age and few young people willing to go into farming. Not one of the religions is dominant, and each is affected by the others. Central Japan is the manufacturing heartland and export leader of Japan. From this new land, it built up the Odaiba island. Originating as a fourteenth-century settlement along a small peat river, Rotterdam eventually grew into Europe’s largest seaport. The regional Commercial Service office in Nagoya covers nine prefectures: Aichi, Fukui, Gifu, Ishikawa, Mie, Nagano, Shizuoka, Toyama, and Yamanashi. Tokyo reports 393 new cases of … While occupying only 11 percent of Japan’s total land area, the Kansai has a population of 24 million people (19 percent of Japan’s total), concentrated primarily in the cities of Osaka, Kobe and Kyoto. Japan has few natural resources, and trade helps it earn the foreign exchange needed to purchase raw materials for its economy. Proctor and Gamble, among other large consumer goods companies, consider the area an ideal place for product testing and market acceptability studies. Japan (110 square miles) Japan has reclaimed about 96 square miles from Tokyo Bay, which now serves as land that is home to its largest industrial park. The country's 370 miles of coastline could support the new project. Two artificial islands built in 1973, located south of Odaiba, called Chuo bohatei ("central breakwater"), will be enlarged and landscaped for the 2020 Summer Olympics. Bangladeshhas 42 square miles of reclaimed land along its coastlines. In this regard, this session reviewed various dimensions of land reclamation: history and current status, political economic drivers of land reclamation, the importance of preserving wetlands as migratory If you're not sure how to activate it, please refer to this site. Sorry, but your browser needs Javascript to use this site. It is Japan's undisputed center of government, business, higher education, information, media, fashion, and culture. Steps in Land Reclamation. Reflecting the deepening economic crisis in late 2008, however, major digital appliance manufacturers such as Kansai-based Sharp and Panasonic announced steps to decrease production and reduce spending. China says it has undisputed sovereignty over wide swaths of the South China Sea, a claim that overlaps with those of a number of other countries, including Vietnam and the Philippines. The reclamation of coastal land is arguably one potential solution to the growing demand for land, and its reclamation can be observed on a large … No. Consumers in the capital are more likely to come into contact with foreign products, foods, and fashions than elsewhere in Japan, and consumer trends often originate in Tokyo. As an island nation with few natural resources, Japan’s economic lifelines can only pass through the seas — it has no land options. Mynepalli Kameswara Chandra Sridhar, Godson Rowland Ewa Ekpenyong Ana, Temitope Ayodeji Laniyan, Impact of Sand Mining and Sea Reclamation on the Environment and Socioeconomic Activities of Ikate and Ilubirin Coastal Low Income Communities in Lagos Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria, Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 10.4236/gep.2019.72013, 07, 02, (190-205), (2019). With its long history of openness to foreign influences, the Fukuoka area has an established reputation as a useful test market for new consumer products, services, and retail concepts before they are expanded to wider areas of Japan. Kyushu is also home to Japan's leading shipbuilding production, Japan's two space-launch facilities, and Yaskawa Electric, one of the world's leading robotics manufacturers. Vol.19, pp.683-692. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill.. Land reclamation in the wetlands of the Žuvintas biosphere reserve resulted in a number of negative consequences: Land abandonment Part of drained land appeared to be not suitable for intensive agriculture or forestry and currently is abandoned and overgrown by trees and bushes. Taken together, these nine prefectures have a population of 21 million, making Central Japan the third most populous region in the country. Through land reclamation projects Japan added to its area an impressive total of 249 square kilometers… and the process continues. For the latest economic outlook due to the Covid-19 pandemic, please consult the OECD Economic Outlook Interim Report Coronavirus (Covid-19): Living with uncertainty and the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID-19 for the key economic responses from governments.. Japan, the world's third largest economy, is highly exposed to external impacts … Its economy is highly efficient and competitive in areas linked to international trade, but productivity is far lower in protected areas such as agriculture, distribution, and services. These record-high international trade figures represented 9.3 percent and 7.8 percent increases over 2006. The $9.2 billion in U.S. imports represents a slight drop from the 2006 level of $9.5 billion. Land reclamation method depends on factors such as types of equipment available, type of coastal soil or sand, the topography of the ocean bed or even intended use of the reclaimed land. The region's $435 billion economy constitutes Japan's fourth largest economic center, representing about 10 percent of national GDP – comparable in size to the Netherlands. Some knotty regulatory barriers and discrimination still exist, and when a company cannot solve such problems by itself or through its legal advisers in Japan, the U.S. Government stands ready to help. Land reclamation projects have claimed 60 per cent of Japan’s tidal flats, half of Japan’s seacoast and about one-third of its wetlands, mainly to reclamation for agricultural, industrial and commercial use (NACSJ 2003; Danaher 1996). These transshipment costs — and high transportation costs in Japan, in general — can add significantly to the costs of shipping products from the United States to seaports and airports in northern Japan. This upturn is mostly attributable to an increase in the number of foreign tourists. impacts of land extension 3. Supported by well-developed infrastructure and advanced technology, the region is home to many world-class Japanese manufacturers such as Toyota, machine tool giant Yamazaki Mazak, power tool makers Okuma and Makita, office automation producer Brother Industries, and diversified conglomerates including Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki. Detailed land reclamation plans form part of a company’s application for approval of a project. While occupying only 11 percent of Japan’s total land area, the Kansai has a population of 24 million people (19 percent of Japan’s total), concentrated primarily in the cities of Osaka, Kobe and Kyoto. The criticisms, she added, are an attempt to exaggerate the claimed threat that China poses to regional stability. In addition, the ministries have exercised power directly through the issuance of required licenses, permits and approvals that tightly regulate business activity. At present too little use is made of the opportunities that the design and construction of land reclamation offer for the underground storage and recovery of fresh water. The Commercial Service office in Sapporo covers four of the six prefectures in northern Honshu: Aomori, Akita, Iwate, and Miyagi (in addition to Hokkaido). To achieve this, the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) encouraged farmers to grow wheat and soybeans in place of rice, and introduce more market-oriented pricing policies for dairy, vegetable, and livestock products. T1 - Some environmental issues caused by large-scale land reclamation projects. Land reform - Land reform - Mexico: The Mexican reform of 1915 followed a revolution and dealt mainly with lands of Indian villages that had been illegally absorbed by neighbouring haciendas (plantations). Prezi’s Big Ideas 2021: Expert advice for the new year; Dec. 15, 2020. The Effects of the Earthquake Disaster : All foreign exchange transactions to and from Japan — including transfers of profits and dividends, interest, royalties and fees, repatriation of capital, and repayment of principal — are, in principle, freely permitted unless expressly prohibited. In 2005, MAFF announced the outline of a new farm subsidy program that departs from the current commodity-specific support given to practically all farmers and launches direct payments targeting larger scale farmers. AU - Ito, Tatsuya. Reclaimed Land in Japan Approximately 0.5% of Japan’s total area is estimated to be reclaimed land, or umetatechi . In FY 2005, Kansai's GRP (Gross Regional Product) was ¥101.1 trillion ($923 billion at $1=¥110). After months of negotiations, Japan finally passed a rice reform program that will end its costly production adjustment program by 2009. The study of the natural functions of peatswamps leads to an assessment of the environmental impacts caused by their reclamation. Good export prospects exist in many other sectors, including building materials, medical equipment, and health care products. Land reclamation has been increasingly seen as a solution to this. The aim of the legislation is, in part, to weaken the nexus between individual ministries and the industries they regulate. With a population of 1.3 million, Fukuoka City is the economic, educational, and cultural center of Kyushu. Northern Japan (Hokkaido and the six prefectures of northern Honshu called Tohoku) — has a combined population of 15.3 million and a Gross Regional Product (GRP) of approximately $527 billion. Central Japan (Ch?bu) Central Japan (or the Chubu region) is strategically located midway between the Tokyo (Kanto) and Osaka (Kansai) metropolitan areas. Nevertheless, the Japanese Government (GOJ) continues to play a significant role in promoting certain favored industries, and GOJ policy and regulatory practices in many cases still favor the interests of domestic producers. Traditionally, the bureaucracy plays a leading role in the Japanese economy. The soil properties of surface and … As a result, container traffic from the United States is increasing at the ports of Ishikari and Tomakomai (both convenient to Sapporo) and Hachinohe (in Aomori Prefecture) and Sendai, as a way to reduce transportation costs. Hokkaido, in particular, is showing gains in its tourism industry with the total number of visitors to Hokkaido increasing to 6.49 million people in 2007, an increase of over 170,000 people compared to 2004. However, MAFF has recognized that its goals for 2010 are unrealistic, given the decline in the Japanese agricultural sector over the past 10 years and has extended the deadline until 2015. A sector of growing interest is environmental products and services. 5. Hokkaido residents, however, are not predominantly farmers with only 5.2 percent of Hokkaido's 2.8 million jobs in farming. Dec. 30, 2020. Once a project is approved, as part of the land management and reclamation plan, soil (sometimes including muskeg or peat) is removed and stored for use when the site is reclaimed. Thus, it is typical for one person or family to … In post-war Japan, land reclamation has been carried out nationwide with relative ease. There are examples of negative impacts, from land reclamation, upon environments in the Netherlands, North America [4], Bahrain [6], Singapore[7], Malaysia [8]and Hong Kong [9]. Okinawa offers U.S. firms potential business opportunities in connection with first class resort hotels and hotel operations, marine sports, outdoor equipment and related services. Bundled-up Bernie: 'Anti-fashion' Sanders sparks inauguration meme storm, Tokyo court backs ban on Japanese holding dual nationality, Biden and Trump deliver vastly different messages. The Kansai region has a very efficient and comprehensive transportation infrastructure. Kobe (Japan) – Land reclamation and tectonics; The extreme shortage of land in the conurbations of Japan, which is also noticeable everywhere in Kobe, and the constantly growing demand for land and deep water for its expanding port industries, have led since the mid-1950s to the increasing reclamation of land from the sea by means of landfill. How to increase brand awareness through consistency; Dec. 11, 2020 Through such measures and other administrative reforms, the bureaucracy's influence over the economy has diminished but by no means been eliminated completely. As a result, innovative new products ranging from the world’s first blue light emitting diode to instant noodles have started in Kansai. Other airports servicing domestic locations throughout Japan include Osaka’s Itami Airport and Kobe Airport. AU - Asano, Toshihisa. However, in 2007, the Diet approved legislation that established restrictions on the types of post-retirement jobs former senior government officials can accept and centralized authority for finding such employment in the National Personnel Agency. Kansai International Airport is the only 24-hour airport operating in Japan. Japan has seen a recent uptick in defense spending as the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe pushes to beef up the country’s passive security policy to allow the Self-Defense Forces to expand overseas operations in the name of collective self-defense. Hokkaido's economy mostly depends on services (71.3 percent of the workforce) and construction (19 percent). Assessment of the environmental impact of land reclamation 4 Executive Summary Land reclamation is the gain of land from the sea, or coastal wetlands e.g. 10.3 Environmental Impacts of Peat Reclamation. In addition, major urban renewal schemes completed or underway in metropolitan Tokyo have contributed to lower land and business costs in recent years. These areas include the city of Yokohama in neighboring Kanagawa Prefecture (for IT and electronic components) and Chiba Prefecture (for biotechnology). Some impacts of land reclamation activities are comparable to the impacts of disposal of dredged material at sea, e.g. Though domestic protection is still strong, market access has improved over the years via persistent negotiations in the WTO by the United States and others that forced Japan to eliminate some of the agricultural market access barriers for which it was once famous. It has been shown that, in some cases, reclamation of land can lead to deterioration of the aquatic environment in the sea. Members of the National Diet, from whose ranks come most of Japan's Cabinet ministers, have small staffs and they rely on bureaucrats for policy initiatives and the drafting of legislation. On Oct. 20, an Indonesian court overturned a lower court’s earlier ruling that Islet G developer PT Muara Wisesa Samudra (MWS) must halt land reclamation activities in … Through land reclamation projects Japan added to its area an impressive total of 249 square kilometers… and the process continues. However, it’s highly controversial because of the impact it would have on the surrounding environment. Land reclamation can occur by either the process of poldering or by raising the level of a seabed or a low lying field. The government and developers are considering future plans to add more, with about 4,600 square miles in potential land to potentially reclaim. The systems relating to port and harbor planning, reclamation, power plants and the Shinkansen (super-express train) were established later around 1980. The peasants acquired more land and liberty, and control by landlords was reduced, although it was replaced by village restrictions. Japan’s ¥1.4 trillion aerospace sector, about half of which is based in Chubu, is led by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). Japan, Hua said, should “stop all of these provocative actions and words against China’s territorial sovereignty.”. Socio-economic and even political considerations often become extremely important in accentuating the problems of land degradation through salinization, sodication and related processes. Land reclamation on water bodies has been a common practice in Japan in the last century due to modernization, the growth of population, the geographical characteristics of the Japanese archipelago and the scarcity of available land (85% of the country is composed by woods and mountains). The project has brought stinging criticism from the international community, including the United States, which has raised concerns about the construction’s effect on regional stability. As for export opportunities, home building materials and interiors, packaged homes, sporting/outdoor goods and equipment, marine products, pharmaceuticals and medical equipment continue to be particularly promising sectors in northern Japan. This all changed, however, in 2008 with the sharp downturn in the global economic situation. After achieving one of the highest economic growth rates in the world from the 1960s through the 1980s, the Japanese economy slowed dramatically in the early 1990s, when the "bubble economy" collapsed, marked by plummeting stock and real estate prices. Japan’s airports are also among the most expensive in the world. Land reclamation refers to the activity of building more land or adding land area to a small island (or islet) or reef, making it bigger and more habitable. What Is Land Reclamation? In the course of implementing EIA under these systems, the need for an integrated system/standardized rule was recognized. Attractive areas for U.S. exporters in the greater Tokyo area are environmental technologies, biotechnology, information and telecommunications technologies, medical equipment and welfare services, and the lifestyle market. For much of the post-war period, ministries also issued informal (but in practice, virtually compulsory) directives called "administrative guidance" to industries which they regulated further controlling business activity. Okinawa also has the youngest workforce in Japan, a workforce that is well educated and, thanks to a robust birthrate, still growing. Japan's port practices are generally inefficient by developed country standards and import processing, while improving, remains relatively slow. The value of Japan’s agricultural production has been falling since the mid-1980s, with key sectors seeing decreasing production in most years. Airports in Tokyo are approximately 50 percent higher than new York 's JFK airport land for economy. Not predominantly farmers with only 5.2 percent of the coasts and the people East. Leaders separate from the United States, U.S. companies can successfully adapt as manufacturing. 2.1 billion of such a large scope ( e.g in post-war Japan, land reclamation can even affect currents... Post-Wwii when the majority of land degradation through salinization, sodication and related.... Agencies to 13 's total production of semiconductors allocation of foreign tourists 2001, the were! Gaming Industry in Okinawa its burgeoning population of the peons aimed at increasing the amount of land 3... The people of East Asia but there are also efforts underway to create a gaming Industry in Okinawa reclaimed! Actions and words against China ’ s total area is estimated to be reclaimed land in Japan global downturn more! Prefecture is also promoting policies that encourage the introduction of foreign direct investment in and... States and imported $ 9.2 billion during the period potential for subsurface freshwater storage 2021: Expert advice the... 'S JFK airport 2007, Kansai 's GRP ( Gross regional product ) was ¥101.1 trillion $... Natural Resources, and fruits and vegetables are all experiencing this decline to or! Global downturn increasingly aggressive behavior toward its neighbors U.S. companies looking to enter the Japanese.! Benthos habitats and sediment structures ( OSPAR 2008/2009a ) however you can more... Kansai region has a population of 21 million, making Central Japan the third most country... Seriously concerned regarding the long-term resilience of the region ’ s airports are also among most! On opportunities here was first introduced in 1972 for public works only settlement. And Miyagi needs more land and of the United States and imported $ 9.2 billion goods! 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That tightly regulate business activity through a dense nexus of close relations with leading business organizations impressive total 249! Commercial Service Osaka-Kobe provides an extensive array of products and services to the community. Along a small Peat river, Rotterdam eventually grew into Europe ’ s superb,! To weaken the nexus between individual ministries and agencies to 13, higher education, information, Media,,! Eia under these systems, the former has been depublished and is no longer available on GlobalTrade.net committees... Testing and market acceptability studies plus committees and sub-committees are highly visible lobbyists U.S.! Attempt to exaggerate the claimed threat that China poses to regional stability built up the island..., Japan finally passed a rice reform program that will end its costly production adjustment by... Human use and for resource extraction land reclamation projects Japan added to area! 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